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Detection of urinary estrogen conjugates and creatinine using near infrared spectroscopy in Bornean orangutans (Pongo Pygmaeus)
Kodzue Kinoshita, Noko Kuze, Toshio Kobayashi, Etsuko Miyakawa, Hiromitsu Narita, Miho Inoue-Murayama, Gen'ichi Idani, Roumiana Tsenkova

For promoting in situ conservation, it is important to estimate the density distribution of fertile individuals, and there is a need for developing an easy monitoring method to discriminate between physiological states. To date, physiological state has generally been determined by measuring hormone concentration using radioimmunoassay or enzyme immunoassay (EIA) methods. However, these methods have rarely been applied in situ because of the requirements for a large amount of reagent, instruments, and a radioactive isotope. In addition, the proper storage of the sample (including urine and feces) on site until analysis is difficult. On the other hand, near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy requires no reagent and enables rapid measurement. In the present study, we attempted urinary NIR spectroscopy to determine the estrogen levels of orangutans in Japanese zoos and in the Danum Valley Conservation Area, Sabah, Malaysia. Reflectance NIR spectra were obtained from urine stored using a filter paper. Filter paper is easy to use to store dried urine, even in the wild. Urinary estrogen and creatinine concentrations measured by EIA were used as the reference data of partial least square (PLS) regression of urinary NIR spectra. High accuracies (R2 > 0.68) were obtained in both estrogen and creatinine regression models. In addition, the PLS regressions in both standards showed higher accuracies (R2 > 0.70). Therefore, the present study demonstrates that urinary NIR spectra have the potential to estimate the estrogen and creatinine concentrations.
Bibliographic information

DOI 10.1007/s10329-015-0501-3
2015/12/08 Primate Research Institute